Rainwater for Agriculture Production / Recreation / Multiple Uses

This option suits for large water requirements for agriculture, plantations, irrigation, inland fisheries livestock production, recreation etc. The basic principle is to collect and store rainwater in earthen made surface level ponds, towards meeting irrigation/sub soil moisture enhancement post rainy period.
This model of surface based rainwater harvesting can meet bulk water requirements in most regions, even with rainfall less than 1000 mm annually. The pond characteristics exclusively depends on rainfall, water demand and soil characteristics. Ideally wet spots within the area, including swamps are used for building such storage ponds. 

  The design of these water structures shall take into consideration the variations in rainfall pattern and intensity that has been impacted by occurrence of climate change in the region. The ground interventions shall be less environmentally-intensive.

Towards this, the emphasis will be on selection of locally available earthen materials (especially clay soil) towards construction of water storage structures. Adopting local flora for soil and side slope soil stabilization is yet another key approach adopted. These approaches helps to bring down the cost, reduce carbon foot print, besides technical advantage in terms of reducing silt load in constructed ponds.

Silting of ponds is effectively addressed by means of rock/biomass based stilling basis which is normally constructed in the upstream channel leading into the pond. This ensures very minimum storage loss on accounting of silting over the years. 

  Download one such case example, of such large earthen pond development executed in 1999-2000 period and still functional.